Fraternities and Rape upon Campus Author(s): Patricia Yancey Martin and Robert A. Hummer Analyzed work(s): Resource: Gender and Society, Vol. 3, No . 4, Special Issue: Physical violence against Ladies (Dec., 1989), pp. 457-473 Published by simply: Sage Magazines, Inc. Steady URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/189763. Accessed: 16/11/2011 12: 10 Your usage of the JSTOR archive signifies your acceptance of the Terms & Circumstances of Use, offered by. http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, experts, and college students discover, make use of, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship or grant. For more information about JSTOR, you should contact [email protected] org.
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FRATERNITIESAND RAPE ON CAMPUS
PATRICIAYANCEYMARTIN ROBERTA. HUMMER Fl State University
Despite widespreadknowledge that fraternitymembersare frequently mixed up in sexual approaches of women, fraternities are rarely studied as interpersonal contexts-groups and organizations-that inspire the lovemaking coercionof girls. An examination of the normsand dynamicsof the social construction of fraternity brotherhoodreveals the highly masculinistfeatures of fraternitystructureand process, includingconcern with a slim, stereotypicalconceptionof masculinity and heterosexuality; a preoccupation with commitment, protection from the crew, and secrecy; the use of alcoholic beverages as a tool against women'ssexual reluctance; the pervasiveness of violence and physicalforce; and an obsession withcompetition, superiority, and dominance. Interfraternityrivalry and competition-particularly more than members, intramuralsports, and women-encourage fraternitymen'scommodification ladies. Weconclude thatfraternities of will certainly continue to break womensocially and sexually unless they enhancements made on fundamentalways.
Rapes are perpetrated on dates, at parties, in chance encounters, and specially organized circumstances. That group structure and operations, rather than individual values or characteristics, are definitely the impetus for most rape attacks was noted by Blanchard (1959) 30 years ago (also see Geis 1971), but sociologists possess failed to follow this idea (for an exception, see Chancer 1987). A recent review of research (Muehlenhard and Linton 1987) on sex violence, or rape, devotes only a few internet pages to the situational AUTHORS' BE AWARE: WegratefullythankMeena Harris and Diane Mennellafor supporting with data collection. The senior author thanks the graduate learners in her fall 1988 graduate analysis methods seminarfor help with growing the initial conceptual framework. Judith Lorberand two anonymousGender& Societyrefereesmadenumerous suggestionsforimproving the article and thankthemalso. REPRINT REQUESTS: Patricia Yancey Martin, Department of Sociology, California State University or college, Tallahassee, FLORIDA 32306-2011. MALE OR FEMALE & CULTURE, Vol. several No . four, December 1989 457-473? 1989 Sociologists pertaining to Womenin World 457
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contextsof rapeevents, andthese areconceptualizedas potentialriskfactors cultural contexts. intended for individualsratherthan qualitiesof rape-prone Various rapes, far more than arrive to the public's attention, occur in houses upon college and universitycampuses, but little researchhas fraternity examined fraternitiesat American colleges and universities as rape-prone situations (cf. Ehrhart Sandler1985). Most of the researchon fraternities and reviews on types of individual fraternitymen. One selection of studies examines the principles, attitudes, awareness, family socioeconomic status, psychological traits (aggressiveness, dependence), etc, of fraternity and nonfraterity men (Bohrnstedt1969; Fox, Hodge, andWard1987; Kanin 1967; Lemire 1979; Callier 1973). A second group attemptsto identify...
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Patricia Yancey Martinis Daisy ParkerFlory AlumniProfessor, Departmentof Sociology, Florida State University. Her specialties will be the sociology of organizations, operate, and male or female. She has publishedon theprocessingof afeitado victimsbyformal organizations and offers forthcomingarticles on rape problems centers, feminist organizations, womenin social well being work, and gender relationships in the Southern region. RobertA. Hummeris a graduate student student in the Sociology Departmentand Centerfor the Studyof Populationat FloridaState University or college. He is workingon his expert 'sthesis regardingthe causes of Asian infantmortality. His researchinterestsinclude cultural stratificationand infant mortalityand study regarding rape by simply college sports athletes.