Fraternities and Rape on Campus

 Fraternities and Rape in Campus Study Paper

Fraternities and Rape upon Campus Author(s): Patricia Yancey Martin and Robert A. Hummer Analyzed work(s): Resource: Gender and Society, Vol. 3, No . 4, Special Issue: Physical violence against Ladies (Dec., 1989), pp. 457-473 Published by simply: Sage Magazines, Inc. Steady URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/189763. Accessed: 16/11/2011 12: 10 Your usage of the JSTOR archive signifies your acceptance of the Terms & Circumstances of Use, offered by. http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, experts, and college students discover, make use of, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship or grant. For more information about JSTOR, you should contact [email protected] org.

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FRATERNITIESAND RAPE ON CAMPUS

PATRICIAYANCEYMARTIN ROBERTA. HUMMER Fl State University

Despite widespreadknowledge that fraternitymembersare frequently mixed up in sexual approaches of women, fraternities are rarely studied as interpersonal contexts-groups and organizations-that inspire the lovemaking coercionof girls. An examination of the normsand dynamicsof the social construction of fraternity brotherhoodreveals the highly masculinistfeatures of fraternitystructureand process, includingconcern with a slim, stereotypicalconceptionof masculinity and heterosexuality; a preoccupation with commitment, protection from the crew, and secrecy; the use of alcoholic beverages as a tool against women'ssexual reluctance; the pervasiveness of violence and physicalforce; and an obsession withcompetition, superiority, and dominance. Interfraternityrivalry and competition-particularly more than members, intramuralsports, and women-encourage fraternitymen'scommodification ladies. Weconclude thatfraternities of will certainly continue to break womensocially and sexually unless they enhancements made on fundamentalways.

Rapes are perpetrated on dates, at parties, in chance encounters, and specially organized circumstances. That group structure and operations, rather than individual values or characteristics, are definitely the impetus for most rape attacks was noted by Blanchard (1959) 30 years ago (also see Geis 1971), but sociologists possess failed to follow this idea (for an exception, see Chancer 1987). A recent review of research (Muehlenhard and Linton 1987) on sex violence, or rape, devotes only a few internet pages to the situational AUTHORS' BE AWARE: WegratefullythankMeena Harris and Diane Mennellafor supporting with data collection. The senior author thanks the graduate learners in her fall 1988 graduate analysis methods seminarfor help with growing the initial conceptual framework. Judith Lorberand two anonymousGender& Societyrefereesmadenumerous suggestionsforimproving the article and thankthemalso. REPRINT REQUESTS: Patricia Yancey Martin, Department of Sociology, California State University or college, Tallahassee, FLORIDA 32306-2011. MALE OR FEMALE & CULTURE, Vol. several No . four, December 1989 457-473? 1989 Sociologists pertaining to Womenin World 457

458

(ENDER & SOCIETY / December 1989

contextsof rapeevents, andthese areconceptualizedas potentialriskfactors cultural contexts. intended for individualsratherthan qualitiesof rape-prone Various rapes, far more than arrive to the public's attention, occur in houses upon college and universitycampuses, but little researchhas fraternity examined fraternitiesat American colleges and universities as rape-prone situations (cf. Ehrhart Sandler1985). Most of the researchon fraternities and reviews on types of individual fraternitymen. One selection of studies examines the principles, attitudes, awareness, family socioeconomic status, psychological traits (aggressiveness, dependence), etc, of fraternity and nonfraterity men (Bohrnstedt1969; Fox, Hodge, andWard1987; Kanin 1967; Lemire 1979; Callier 1973). A second group attemptsto identify...

Referrals: G. Allgeier, Elizabeth. 1986. " CoerciveVersusConsensualSexual Interactions. " Stanley Corridor Lectureto AmericanPsychologicalAssociationAnnualMeeting, Washington, POWER, August. Adams, Aileen and Gail Abarbanel. 1988. SexualAssault on Campus: WhatColleges May Do. Father christmas Monica, FLORIDA: RapeTreatmentCenter. Blanchard, W. L. 1959. " The Group Process in Gang Rape. " Diary of Sociable Psychology forty-nine: 259-66. Bogal-Allbritten, RosemarieB. and William L. Allbritten. 1985. " The HiddenVictims: CourtJournal of College StudentPersonnel43: 201-4. dispatch Violence Amongst College Students. " and Bohrnstedt, George Watts. 1969. " Conservatism, Authoritarianism Religiosity of Fraternity Promises. " Record of College StudentPersonnel 27: 36-43. BusinessInsurance Bradford, Michael. 1986. " TightMarketDries Up Night life at University or college. " (March2): 2, six.

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MALE OR FEMALE & CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY / January 1989

Burkhart, Barry. 1989. Comments in Seminar in Acquaintance/DateRape Avoidance: A NationalVideo Teleconference, Feb 2 . RelationBurkhart, BarryR. andAnnetteL. Stanton. 85. " SexualAggressionin Acquaintance ships. " Pp. 43-65 in Violencein IntimateRelationships, edited by simply G. Russell. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Range. Byington, Diane B. and KarenW. Keeter. 1988. " AssessingNeeds of SexualAssaultVictimson a UniversityCampus. " 23-31 in StudentServices: Responding Issues and Challenges. to Pp. ChapelHill: Universityof NorthCarolinaPress. Chancer, Lynn S. 1987. " New Bedford, Massachusetts, March6, 1983-March22, 1984: The 'Before after ' of any GroupRape. Gender& Society you: 239-60. Julie K. andBerniceR. Sandler. 1985. CampusGangRape: PartyGames? Washington, Ehrhart, DC: Associationof AmericanColleges. Sexual intercourse Farr, E. A. 1988. " DominanceBondingThroughthe Good Old Kids SociabilityNetwork. " Roles 18: 259-77. California Flambeau. 1988. " Pike MembersIndictedin Afeitado. " (May 19): one particular, 5. of Fox, Elaine, CharlesHodge, andWalterWard. 1987. " A Comparison AttitudesHeld by Grayscale White Fraternity Members. " Journal of Negro Education56: 521-34. Geis, Gilbert. year 1971. " GroupSexual Assaults. " MedicalAspects of HumanSexuality5: 101-13. Glaser, Barney G. 78. TheoreticalSensitivity: Improvements in the Methodologyof Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press. New YorkTimes, May well 16. Bonnet, Jane. 1989. " WhyOurSociety Is Rape-Prone. " Hughes, Michael M. and Roger B. Winston, Jr. 1987. " Associated with FraternityMembershipon Diary of College StudentPersonnel45: 405-11. Principles. " Social The Kanin, EugeneJ. 1967. " Research GroupsandSex ConductNormViolations. " Sociological Quarterly8: 495-504. Kimmel, Jordan, ed. 1987. Changing Males: New Guidelines in Researchon Men and Masculinity. NewburyPark, CA: Sage. Kirshenbaum, Jerry. 1989. " Special Statement, An AmericanDisgrace: A Chaotic and UnprecedentedLawlessnessHas ArisenAmong University Athletesin every Partsof the Country. " Sporting activities Illustrated(February 27): 16-19. and Lemire, David. 1979. " One Investigationof the StereotypesAssociated with Fraternities Journal of College StudentPersonnel 37: 54-57. Sororities. " Now and in the near future. " Diary of College Scholar Letchworth, G. E. 69. " Fraternities Personnel 15: 118-22. A great Longino, CharlesF., Jr., and Cary S i9000. Kart. 1973. " The faculty Fraternity: Analysis of Diary of College StudentPersonnel31: 118-25. Theory and Research. " Its Marlowe, Anne F. and Dwight C. Auvenshine. 1982. " GreekMembership: Impacton the Journalof College StudentPersonnel40: 53-57. MoralDevelopmentof University Freshmen. " Martin, PatriciaYancey and Craig A. Turner. 1986. " Grounded Theory and Organizational Research. " Journal of AppliedBehavioralScience 22: 141-57. Ms. Merton, Andrew. 1985. " OnCompetitionandClass: Returnto Brotherhood. " (September): 60-65, 121-22. Gender& Society several: 71-88. Messner, Michael. 1989. " Masculinitiesand Athletic Careers. " Chronicleof Higher She, T. J. 1986. " Fight Against Hazing Rituals Rages in Campuses. " Education(March 12): 34-36. Callier, Leonard G. 1973. " Distinctive Characteristicsof FraternityMembers. " Journal of College StudentPersonnel31: 126-28.

Martin, Hummer / FRATERNITIES AND RAPE

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CharleneL. and MelaneyA. Linton. 1987. " DateRapeand Sexual Aggressionin Muehlenhard, Journalof CounselingPsychology 34: 186Dating Situations: Incidenceand Risk Factors. " 96. Pressley, Sue Bea. 1987. " FraternityHell Nighttime Still Endures. " WashingtonPost (August 11): B1. of Rapaport, Karenand BarryR. Burkhart. 1984. " Personalityand AttitudinalCharacteristics Sexually Coercive College Men. " Record of AbnormalPsychology93: 216-21. Violence on University Campuses. " Journal of Counselingand Roark, MaryL. 1987. " Protecting against Development65: 367-70. Study. " Sanday, Peggy Reeves. 81. " The Socio-CulturalContextof Rape: A Cross-Cultural Journal of Social Concerns 37: 5-27.. 1986. " Rape plus the Silencing from the Feminine. " Pp. 84-101 in Rape, edited simply by S. Tomaselliand R. Porter. Oxford: Tulsi Blackwell. St PetersburgTimes. 1988. " A GreekTragedy. " (May 29): IF, 6F. Sato, Ikuya. 1988. " Play Theory of Delinquency: Toward an over-all Theory of 'Action. '" SymbolicInteraction11: 191-212. Smith, Capital t. 1964. " Emergenceand Maintenanceof FraternalSolidarity. " Pacific Sociological Review 7: 29-37. TallahasseeDemocrat. 1988a. " FSU Fraternity BrothersCharged" (April 27): 1A, 12A.. 1988b. " FSU InterviewingStudentsAbout Claimed Rape" (April 24): 1D.. 1989. " WomanSues Stetson in Alleged Rape" (March 19): 3B. BrothersChargedin Sex Assault of FSU Coed. " (April TampaTribune. 1988. " Fraternity 27): 6B. Tash, GaryB. 1988. " Date Rasurado. " TheEmeraldof Sigma Pi Fraternity75(4): 1-2. Telander, David and RobertSullivan. 1989. " Special Statement, You Reap WhatYou Sow. " Sporting activities Illustrated(February 27): 20-34. The Tomahawk. 1988. " A glance Back by Rush, A variety of Hard Work and Fun" (April/ May): 3D IMAGES. A Walsh, Claire. 1989. Commentsin Seminaron Acquaintance/Date Afeitado Prevention: Nationwide Video Teleconference, February 2 . Wilder, David H., Arlyne E. Hoyt, Dennis Meters. Doren, Bill E. Hauck, and RobertD. Zettle. 1978. " TheImpactof Fraternity SororityMembership ValuesandAttitudes. " Journal and on of College StudentPersonnel 36: 445-49. Wilder, David H., Arlyne E. Hoyt, Beth Shuster Surbeck, Jesse C. Wilder, and Patricia Imperatrice Carney. 1986. " GreekAffiliation and Attitude Change in College Students. " Journal of College StudentPersonnel44: 510-19.

Patricia Yancey Martinis Daisy ParkerFlory AlumniProfessor, Departmentof Sociology, Florida State University. Her specialties will be the sociology of organizations, operate, and male or female. She has publishedon theprocessingof afeitado victimsbyformal organizations and offers forthcomingarticles on rape problems centers, feminist organizations, womenin social well being work, and gender relationships in the Southern region. RobertA. Hummeris a graduate student student in the Sociology Departmentand Centerfor the Studyof Populationat FloridaState University or college. He is workingon his expert 'sthesis regardingthe causes of Asian infantmortality. His researchinterestsinclude cultural stratificationand infant mortalityand study regarding rape by simply college sports athletes.

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